We have published border management guidelines for EU countries to protect health and keep essential goods and services available. The guide contains a number of common legislation and objectives to help EU countries in their efforts. We want to protect the health of citizens, ensure the proper treatment of people who must travel and ensure the availability of essential goods and services. A common (or unified) market is the most important step towards full economic integration. In the case of Europe, the single market is officially referred to as the `internal market`. The free movement of goods within the European Union is ensured by a customs union and the principle of non-discrimination.  The EU manages imports from third countries, tariffs between Member States are prohibited and imports are free.  In addition, Article 34 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union prohibits “quantitative import restrictions and all measures of equivalent effect between Member States”. In the Case of The King`s Prosecutor/Dassonville, the Court held that this rule meant that all “trade rules” “enacted by Member States” that could impede trade “directly or indirectly, effectively or potentially” would be covered by Article 34.  This meant that a Belgian law requiring imports of Scotch whisky on a certificate of origin was probably not legal. It discriminated against parallel importers, such as Mr.
Dassonville, who were unable to obtain certificates from the French authorities, where they purchased the Scot. This “broad test” to determine what might be an illegal restriction on trade also applies to the actions of quasi-government agencies, such as the former government-appointed Buy Irish.  It also means that states can be responsible for private actors. Thus, in the Commission/France case, French farmers have constantly sabotaged shipments of Spanish strawberries and even Belgian imports of pure tomatoes. According to him, France is responsible for these obstacles to trade because the authorities abstained “obviously and persistently” to prevent sabotage.  Where a Member State has legislation or practice that directly discriminates against imports (or exports to Article 35 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union), this must be justified in general terms under Article 36, which describes all justified cases.  Justifications include public morality, policy or security, “protection of the health and lives of people, animals or plants,” “national treasures” of “artistic, historical or archaeological value” and “industrial and commercial property.” In addition, environmental protection, although not clearly mentioned, may justify trade restrictions as a compelling requirement under Article 11 of the EUTS.  The Eyssen/Netherlands case of 1981 described a disagreement between the scientific community and the Dutch government over whether niacin posed a public risk in cheese. Since the public risk falls under Article 36, which means that a quantitative restriction may be imposed, it justified the Dutch government`s restriction on the import of the Eyssen cheese company.  A fiscal union is an agreement to harmonize tax rates, define public sector spending and common appropriations, and jointly agree on national budget deficits or surpluses. At the beginning of 2012, the majority of EU Member States agreed on a fiscal pact that is a less restrictive version of a comprehensive fiscal union.
Customs unions are agreements between countries in which the parties agree to allow free trade in products within the customs union and they agree on a common external tariff (CET) for imports from the rest of the world. It is this CET that distinguishes a customs union from a regional trade agreement. It is important to note that, although trade within the EU is full, customs unions